About Nanjing 南京
Nanjing(南京) lies on the south bank of the Yangtze River, Nanjing, the capital
of Jiangsu Province, is one of the most delightful destinations in China. Known
as the capital city of six or ten dynasties in ancient Chinese history, it has a
brilliant cultural heritage.
Yuecheng, the first recorded military defense constructed in early 472 B.C.,
opened the long history of Nanjing. In the following years, the city reached its
height of splendor at various times. In 229, Sun Quan, one of the three heroes
in Three Kingdoms Period
(220 - 280), to strengthen his influence in the middle
valley of the Yangtze River, moved the capital of his kingdom here and named it
Jianye. From that time on, the city served as the capital for several dynasties
in history. In 1356, in a peasant rebellion, Zhu Yuanzhang, later the Emperor
Taizu of the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644), conquered the city and renamed it
Yingtian Fu. In 1368, Zhu established the
Ming Dynasty - the last feudal dynasty
ruled by the native Han people - and gave Yingtian Fu the new name of the city.
Ten years later, the emperor made it the capital of the country. The
of Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang is perching on the southern slope of the
Purple Mountain in the northeastern part of the city.
Following officials' advice of "building walls and producing grain to consolidate the rule", the emperor ordered the construction of city walls. Today's majestic walls in the city, the longest of its kind in the world, are the result of that phase of construction. Zhonghua Gate, simply meaning 'Chinese Gate', is a noted attraction for visitors in the present city center.
In spite of its glorious times, the city also witnessed the hardest moment of this nation. In 1839, the Opium War burst out after Lin Zexu, an assiduous official, burnt twenty thousand boxes of opium in Humen. On a battleship in Xiaguan of the city, the corrupt Qing government, under threat by Britain troops, signed the notorious Nanjing Treaty, the first of the 'Unequal Treaties' which ceded Hong Kong away from China for more than hundred years. Following this treaty, invasions and colonial rule of the western countries intensified and China sank into a harder and darker time.
Peasant groups of Taiping rebelled against the Qing government in 1853 and established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in this region, the name of the metropolis at that time, and formed an army. Unfortunately, the peasant regime was short-lived and in 1864, troops of Qing government won the city back. Nowadays, in Xuyuan Garden, which is within the Presidential Palace, one can still see part of the former residence of the Heavenly King of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
It was the Revolution of 1911, the Chinese bourgeois democratic revolution led by Dr.Sun Yat-Sen that overthrew the Qing Dynasty. On the first day of 1912, Dr. Sun Yet-sen gave his simple but sublime address on the inauguration held of the new Republic of China. Today, a memorial hall in the Mausoleum of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, houses a statue of Dr. Sun sculpted out of white marble.
On April 18th, 1927, Chiang Kaishek launched the counter-revolutionary 4.12 Coup and established his power in the city. Also, in 1937, the inhuman Nanjing Massacre happened. In six weeks, more than 300,000 Chinese people were killed including women and children.No atrocity can go unpunished. In 1945 the Chinese people eventually drove the barbarous Japanese army out of China and the war criminals got what they deserved. However the atrocity left a deep scar on the city. Pictures of Japanese soldiers taken by Japanese photographers are exhibited in the Memorial Hall to the Victims in the Nanjing Massacre.
In addition to historical sights, memorials, museums and cultural sights also
attract thousands of visitors. The famous
(Fuzimiao) is not
only a memorial place for the Great Sage but has a surrounding area bustling
with shops, restaurants and a snack street housed in traditional architectural
buildings. The nearby Imperial Examination Museum of China (Jiangnan Examination
Hall) and Former Residence of the Wang and Xie Families have seen their best
days in ancient times. In the city center, Nanjing Museum is a must for visitors
with a collection of more than 420 thousand pieces, including about 2,000 that
are rare and valued.
The Zijinshan Observatory (Purple Mountain Observatory) to
the east of the city center was the first modern observatory built in China.
Qinhuai River, in the southwest of the city, extends one hundred kilometers. The river used to be the most flourishing part of the city in the old days. In many Chinese novels, it is renowned as a place which nurtured beauties and romance. Today, it is a place for people to recall the old splendor of this historical city. Like all sights here, it tells the story of past, present and future of the city.
Nanjing has been the capital of several Chinese imperial dynasties. It has a variety of historical and cultural heritage evident in its architecture like imperial mausoleums, old temples, traditional garden buildings, and museums; thus, visitors have various things to do in and around the city.